Article 18119

Title of the article



Epova Lidiya Alekseevna, Researcher, Reserve Baikal (291B, Baikal street, Irkutsk, Russia), E-mail:
Kuranova Valentina Nikolaevna, Candidate of biological sciences, associate professor, sub-department of vertebrate zoology and ecology, National Research Tomsk State University (36 Lenin avenue, Tomsk, Russia), E-mail: 

Index UDK

597.841: 57.017 




Background. In amphibians decrease in the growth rate leads to increase in the age of onset of puberty and life expectancy a pattern that is positively related with altitude [1–2]. We analyzed these characteristics in two populations of the common toad, Bufo bufo in different altitude zones of the Kuznetsk Alatau Mountains.
Materials and methods. During 2012–2016 we collected samples from two common toad populations located at low and middle altitude zones. We determined age, life expectancy and growth rate of individuals with the aim to analyze them during an active season.
Results. We found that the life span of males and females in the common toad populations of the Kuznetsk Alatau is 10 years. Males reach sexual maturity after 4 or 5 years, females – after 6 years. In the population of B. bufo from Kuznetsk Alatau breeding females aged 6–9 years, males – 4–8 years. We observed that as we move up in the mountains the duration of common toads active period decreases, determining a decrease in the growth rate and a later age of onset of puberty, as well as an increase in the life span of individuals.
Conclusions. Our study shows that at high altitude with a short active season the growth rate of B. bufo is decrease, which determines increase longevity of individuals and reach their sexual maturity later than populations located in the European part of the range and lowlands of the southeast of Western Siberia (males 2–4; females 3–4 years). 

Key words

common toad, Bufo bufo, mountain populations, altitudinal variation, Kuznetsk Alatau, Western Siberia, age, growth, longevity, age of sexual maturity, interpopulation variability, skeletochronology 


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